This is a lasting and complete dislocation of the joint surfaces of the bones, which form any of the joints of the foot.
The sprain of the foot includes:
When the dislocation is not complete, it is called a sub-luxation. The traumatic sprains occur suddenly under the effect of quickly acting force (external). The joint bag is always torn. One of the joint bodies comes out through the formed opening of the joint capsule. In the joint, and around it blood is spilling. The pain provokes a spasm of the muscles, which fix the luxated joint body in a particular position.
The mechanisms of sprain of the foot are different.
They occur as a result of car and motorcycle accidents. The most common mechanism is the forced dorsal flexing (folding of the foot to the back of the sole). The sprain of different parts of the foot occurs after falling or jumping from high places. During strong internal rotation, bending and plantar flexing of the foot, which can tear the ligaments of the talus. The mechanism of sprain of the foot can also be either direct or indirect. The direct sprain leads to internal traumas, and the indirect mechanism leads to the occurrence of open traumas of the foot.
Clinical data of the sprain of the foot.
The typical symptoms of the sprain of the foot are:
– Deformation of the joint – its anatomic configuration is changed. The deformation depends on its localisation and the type of sprain, on the time that has elapsed after the trauma, and on the presence of concomitant injuries;
– Forced position of the foot;
– Lack of movement in the joint – the joint movements are impossible due to the full dislocation of the joint surfaces, and a muscle contraction occurs, which retains the limb in the particular position. Each attempt at making a given movement leads to strong pain. No passive movements are performed;
– Spring resistance – at any attempt for a change of the position of the foot, a strong, insurmountable resistance is felt, as if a spring is pressed. When the pressure is discontinued, the limb quickly returns to its original position.
The clinical description of the sprain of the foot also includes atypical symptoms: edema, pain, subcutaneous hemorrhage, disturbed axis of the foot, etc.
Diagnosed sprain of other and unclear parts of the foot
The X-ray examination is mandatory!
Treatment of the sprain of the foot.
The re-adjustment of the joint is done as soon as possible after the trauma, and it is done under general anesthesia. The methods of re-adjustment aim to put the sprained joint back to an indifferent position. A typical click is heard after the re-adjustment. After the re-adjustment of the joint is complete, it is mandatory to make an X-ray image, and after that the re-adjusted joint is immobilised, so that the joint bag, the connecting apparatus and the soft tissue can heal back.
After the removal of immobilisation, a programme of active medicinal exercises and physical therapy must begin to recover the function of the affected joint.
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